Endometriosis – Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Endometriosis is the growth of cells similar to those that form the inside of the uterus (endometrial cells), but in a location outside of the uterus. Endometrial cells are the same cells that are shed each month during menstruation. Endometriosis is a common health problem in women. In women with this problem, tissue that looks and acts like the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus in other areas. These areas can be called growths, tumors, implants, lesions, or nodulesIt facilitates collaboration and information sharing between women with endometriosis. Endometriosis is estimated to affect over one million women (estimates range from 3% to 18% of women) in the United States.

It is one of the leading causes of pelvic pain and reasons for laparoscopic surgery and hysterectomy in this country. While the mean age at diagnosis is around 25-30 years, endometriosis has been reported in girls as young as 11 years of age. Endometriosis is rare in postmenopausal women. Endometrial cells (loosened during menstruation) may “back up” through the fallopian tubes into the pelvis, where they implant and grow in the pelvic or abdominal cavities. This is called retrograde-menstruation. When endometrial tissue is located elsewhere in your body, it continues to act in its normal way: It thickens, breaks down and bleeds each month as your hormone levels rise and fall. Because there’s nowhere for the blood from this displaced tissue to exit your body.

It becomes trapped.Trapped blood may lead to the growth of cysts. Cysts, in turn, may form scar tissue and adhesions abnormal tissue that binds organs together. This process can cause pain in the area of misplaced tissue, often the pelvis, especially during your period. Scars and adhesions related to endometriosis also can cause fertility problems. Pain is one of the most common symptoms of endometriosis. Usually the pain is in the abdomen, lower back, and pelvis. Some women have no pain, even though their disease affects large areas. Other women with endometriosis have severe pain even though they have only a few small growths. Women with endometriosis may also have gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea, constipation, or bloating, especially during their periods.

Causes of Endometriosis

1.Estrogen harmones

2.Retrograde menstruation.

3.Immune system

4.Allergic reactions.

5.Impact of toxins.

Symptoms of Endometriosis

1.Pain with sex.

2.Infertility.

3.Fatigue.

4.Painful urination during periods.

5.Infertility.

Treatment of Endometriosis

Progesterone counteracts estrogen and inhibits the growth of the endometrium. Such therapy can reduce or eliminate menstruation in a controlled and reversible fashion. Progestins are chemical variants of natural progesterone. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists (GnRH agonists) induce a profound hypoestrogenism by decreasing FSH and LH levels. While quite effective, they induce unpleasant menopausal symptoms, and over time may lead to osteoporosis. Laparotomy can be used for more extensive surgery either in attempt to restore normal anatomy, or at least preserve reproductive potential. Danazol (Danocrine) and gestrinone are suppressive steroids with some androgenic activity. Both agents inhibit the growth of endometriosis but their use remains limited as they may cause hirsutism. There has been some research done at Case Western Reserve University on a topical Danocrine, applied locally, which has not produced the hirsutism characteristics. Pseudopregnancy can be created using oral contraceptives containing estrogen and progesterone. Women take the medicine consistently for 6 to 9 months. This type of therapy relieves most of the symptoms, but does not prevent scarring from the disease.

Avoid coffee and alcohol. Conservative surgery removes endometrial growths, scar tissue and adhesions without removing your reproductive organs. In laparoscopic surgery, a slender viewing instrument (laparoscope) is inserted through a small incision near your navel. The laparoscope is equipped with a laser, a cautery an instrument that destroys tissue with heat or small surgical instruments. Melatonin and serotonin are increased by meditation, and the stress hormone cortisol is decreased. Oral contraceptive pills (estrogen and progesterone in combination) are also sometimes used to treat endometriosis. The most common combination used is in the form of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP). Treatment of endometriosis has involved the administration of drugs known as aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole [Arimidex] and letrozole [Femara] are examples). These drugs act by interrupting local estrogen formation within the endometriosis implants themselves. They also inhibit estrogen production in the ovary, brain, and other sources, such as adipose tissue.

Ectopic Pregnancy – Defination, Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Ectopic pregnancy is a condition in which a fertilized egg settles and grows in any location other than the inner lining of the uterus . About 1% of pregnancies are in an ectopic location with implantation not occurring inside of the womb, and of these 98% occur in the Fallopian tubes. In a typical ectopic pregnancy, the embryo does not reach the uterus, but instead adheres to the lining of the Fallopian tube. The implanted embryo burrows actively into the tubal lining. Most commonly this invades vessels and will cause bleeding. This bleeding expels the implantation out of the tubal end as a tubal abortion. Some women thinking they are having a miscarriage are actually having a tubal abortion. There is no inflammation of the tube in ectopic pregnancy. The pain is caused by prostaglandins released at the implantation site, and by free blood in the peritoneal cavity, which is locally irritant. Sometimes the bleeding might be heavy enough to threaten the health or life of the woman. Usually this degree of bleeding is due to delay in diagnosis, but sometimes, especially if the implantation is in the proximal tube it may invade into Sampson artery , causing heavy bleeding earlier than usual. An ectopic pregnancy can’t proceed normally. The developing embryo can’t survive, and the growing placental tissue may destroy important maternal structures. Without treatment, life-threatening blood loss is possible. About one in every 40 to 100 pregnancies is ectopic. Thanks to earlier diagnosis and treatment, the chance for future healthy pregnancies is better than ever before.

Ectopic means “out of place.” An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy where the fetus is not growing in the usual location (the uterine cavity or the womb). Ectopic pregnancies can occur in a number of unusual locations, each with different characteristic growth patterns. Almost all ectopic pregnancies occur in fallopian tubes (tubes from uterus), so this is also known as “Tubal Pregnancy”. Since the fallopian tubes are not large enough to accommodate a growing embryo, the pregnancy cannot continue normally. If identified early, the embryo is removed. In some cases, the embryo grows until the fallopian tube is stretched so much that the tube ruptures. Rupture of the tube is a medical emergency that requires immediate medical attention because it can result in severe hemorrhaging. An ectopic pregnancy is a potentially life-threatening condition.

Causes of Ectopic pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy is caused by a disruption in a woman’s reproductive anatomy or the timing of specific reproductive events. Ectopic pregnancy is common in women age 20 to 29, but the cause is not always known. However, previous damage to one of the two fallopian tubes may obstruct the passage of the fertilized egg along the tube to the uterus. The egg then implants in the wall of the tube instead of in the uterus. This prior damage may have been caused by an unsuccessful or a reversed sterilization procedure or a fallopian tube infection. Ectopic pregnancies are more common in women using an intrauterine contraceptive device, partly because these devices increase the risk of a pelvic infection in women who exposed to sexually transmitted diseases.

Symptoms of Ectopic pregnancy

1. Nausea, vomiting.

2. Dizziness.

3. Low blood pressure.

4. Breast tenderness.

5. Frequent urination.

Treatment of Ectopic pregnancy

Medicine, surgery, or a combination of the two are usually used to end an ectopic pregnancy before it endangers the mother. In a few cases, very early ectopic pregnancies can be watched closely to see whether the pregnancy will miscarry on its own. Emergency medical help is needed if the area of the ectopic pregnancy ruptured. (Shock is an emergency condition.) Treatment for shock may include keeping the woman warm, raising her legs, and giving oxygen. Fluids by IV and a blood transfusion may be needed. Surgery (laparotomy) is done to stop blood loss (in the event of a rupture). This surgery is also done to confirm the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy, remove the abnormal pregnancy, and repair any tissue damage. In some cases, removal of the fallopian tube may be necessary. A mini-laparotomy and laparoscopy are the most common surgical treatments for an ectopic pregnancy that has not ruptured.

General Of Financial Services

The most highly regulated sector in the world is financial services and this is likely to continue and accelerate. Financial institutions struggle with complex data systems and procedures and must comply with strict reporting requirements from the regulatory bodies to protect their assets and customer data. Additionally, financial services organizations are clearly the target of both individual and organized fraud. Key to meeting regulatory audit requirements and detecting fraud is the ability to collect and analyze log and event data from both IT infrastructure and applications.

The technical and economic challenges of storing terabytes of log and event data, the systems of record from applications used for customer transactions, are staggering, and traditional security, log management and data warehouse database solutions are poorly suited to address the challenges of both data volume and query access. Event Data Warehouse solutions that provide actionable results from massive amounts of log and event data.

More and more consumers need access to sound financial products and independent, honest financial advice. The government requires financial product makers and sellers to be licensed. Among other things this scheme gives increased legitimacy to financial advisers.

Benefits to the Financial Services Sector:

The Centre for Financial Services works with key allied partners to anticipate industry direction and fulfill its changing needs. It is committed to providing leading edge, cost effective and customized education, as well as professional development and training programs to assist firms to train and develop their people to keep pace with competition.

1. A pool of well educated, highly trained graduates and co-op students
2. Curriculum and training integrated with the newest technology to meet the changing job requirements in the global workplace
3. Highly trained financial services educators and instructors
4. Top facilities and resources for collaborative applied research
5. Teaching fellowship opportunities
6. Client contact centre laboratories for employee training
7. A forum for financial industry partners to exchange ideas
8. A business network into the private and public sector